Will Improved Energy Efficiency Lead to Increased Energy Consumption in the Developing World? Quite Possibly
Filed under: Energy News
Photo Voltaic Electricity from the Sun
In this article we shall dwell upon the mechanism of Producing Photo Voltaic Electricity from the light of the Sun.
Photovoltaic principles are used to produce electricity. A solar panel (PV panel) is made of silicon, which becomes charged when subjected to sunlight. The electrical charge is consolidated in the PV panel and directed to the output terminals as Direct Current.
Photo-Voltaics essentially means Volts produced by photons. The panels are made out of silicon wafers, which let out (release) electrons when impinged upon by photons ( light). This is a rare property of some semi-conductors.
The intensity of Solar radiation changes during the course of the day, year and weather conditions. To facilitate calculations in planning a system, the total amount of solar radiation energy is expressed as Peak Sun Hours. United States Department of Energy indicates the amount of solar energy that hits the surface of the earth every +/- hour is greater than the total amount of energy that the entire human population requires in a year.
We had discussed the components of a solar generator in one of our earlier posts.
Solar Panels: The output of a solar panel is usually stated in watts (V x A = W)
Since the intensity of sunlight contacting the solar panel varies throughout the day, we use the term “peak sun hours” as a method to average out variations into a daily average.
Battery: Deep Cycle batteries are preferably used in Solar Generators for back-up. Lead-acid batteries are the most common in PV systems because their initial cost is low. Lead-acid batteries are available in both wet-cell (requires maintenance) and sealed no-maintenance versions.
Using an Inverter: An inverter is a device which changes DC power stored in a battery to standard
120/240 VAC electricity (also referred to as 110/220). In an inverter, direct current (DC) is switched back and forth to produce alternating current (AC). Then it is transformed, filtered, stepped, etc. to get it to an acceptable output waveform. The more processing, the cleaner and quieter the output, but the lower the efficiency of the conversion. The goal becomes to produce a waveform that is acceptable to all loads without sacrificing too much power into the conversion process.
Inverters come in two basic output designs – sine wave and modified sine wave.
In all systems there are losses due to such things as voltage losses as the electricity is carried across the wires, batteries and inverters not being 100 percent efficient, and other factors. These efficiency losses vary from component to component, and from system to system and can be as high as 25 percent.
Posted: October 20, 2014
L’Oréal USA announced the signing of a definitive agreement to acquire Carol’s Daughter. Following a multi-channel distribution model, Carol’s Daughter offers a comprehensive range of products that are available at specialty beauty stores, mass retailers, on HSN, through e-commerce and at Carol’s Daughter branded stores in New York City. For the 12 months ending September 30, 2014, Carol’s Daughter had net sales of $27 million.
“Carol’s Daughter possesses an expertise in the multi-cultural consumer segment, a rapidly expanding market that represents an important growth opportunity in the beauty industry,” said Frederic Roze, president and CEO, L’Oréal USA. “This acquisition will enable L’Oréal USA to build a new dedicated multi-cultural beauty division as part of our consumer products business and strengthen the company’s position in this dynamic market.”
Carol’s Daughter will continue to operate out of its New York City headquarters under the brand’s current leadership team. The acquisition, according to the company, further enhances L’Oréal USA’s roster of American brands, which includes Maybelline NY, Kiehl’s, Essie, Urban Decay, Clarisonic and NYX.
“I have worked hard for the past 21 years nurturing my brand and am thrilled that we will have a new home with L’Oréal USA,” said Lisa Price, founder and president of Carol’s Daughter. “L’Oréal has a proven track record of helping established companies achieve their full potential while staying true to the core of the brand and they have an understanding of the future of multi-cultural beauty. I could not be more proud to begin this next chapter of the Carol’s Daughter brand with them. I know that my mother (Carol) is smiling as well.”
Headquartered in New York City, Carol’s Daughter is an American multi-cultural beauty brand with a pioneering heritage in the natural beauty movement. Created by in 1993, the brand caters to a diverse, rapidly growing market and has established a loyal consumer following across the country.
Related Topics: Acquisitions (Marketers)
Posted: October 17, 2014
The multicultural beauty products market continues to outpace the growth of the overall market for cosmetics and toiletries, posting a 3.7% increase in 2014, reports Kline Company in its soon-to-be-published Multicultural Beauty and Grooming Products: U.S. Market Analysis and Opportunities.
Rapidly growing ethnic populations have given way to intensified competition, with multicultural beauty marketers breaking boundaries between general and multicultural beauty. According to Kline, on one end, there are brands such as Carol’s Daughter that are positioning away from being an exclusive ethnic brand to now also target a broader audience, regardless of ethnicity. This holds particularly true in the natural personal care segment, where popular ethnic hair brand Shea Moisture, as an example, is now rebranding to become suitable for all consumers.
“This widening approach helps move multicultural brands beyond the ethnic section of the beauty aisle to sit side-by-side nationally advertised brands,” says Donna Barson, senior associate at Kline’s Consumer Products practice. “However, this audience expansion needs to be done without alienating long-time consumers who might feel deserted if they feel like their brand no longer speaks exclusively to them.”
Concurrently, mainstream brands continue to develop tactics to capture a growing percentage of the ethnic personal care market. While mainstream brands like Revlon, Lancôme and Cover Girl have long reached ethnic consumers via the creative use of spokesmodels and targeted advertising, the approach for many brands has become even more savvy and genuine. Some brands, including Estée Lauder and Shiseido, use beauty advisors who speak the language of the local ethnic community (whether it is Mandarin, Vietnamese or Spanish, as examples) to create a greater connection with these consumers. Some also launch products targeting certain ethnic groups in the United States that are simultaneously released in that group’s country of origin.
Beyond the movement of mainstream companies into the multicultural space opening possibilities of more MA in the coming years, it will also be beneficial for consumers as they will be provided with a wider array of products targeting their needs. Smaller multicultural companies will also need to innovate in order to gain sales and create a niche for themselves or position themselves for a potential acquisition. In addition, the competition coming from the general market is also blurring the lines and challenging multicultural marketers.
Posted: October 17, 2014
China is losing market share in the Asian natural and organic cosmetics market, according to Organic Monitor research that finds Chinese market growth rates are declining because of certain testing methods and formulation challenges.
The Asian natural cosmetics market is expanding by about 15% per year. Growing consumer awareness of health and wellness issues is boosting demand for organic and natural products. Few Chinese companies, however, are producing natural and organic cosmetics because of formulation and ingredient issues. There is low availability of certified organic ingredients and natural extracts, which are mainly imported into China. Further, offers Organic Monitor, Chinese formulators and product developers lack technical expertise in replacing synthetic ingredients with naturals in cosmetic formulations.
While the Chinese market for naturals has declined, markets such as India, Thailand and Singapore grow. Interestingly, Hong Kong is a Chinese anomaly, with a number of leading international natural and organic cosmetic brands maintaining a strong presence in Hong Kong while more than 20 new brands launched annually in Hong Kong. Further, Hong Kong may have the highest concentration of green cosmetic retailers in the world. Apivita, Jasmin Skincare, Aveda, Neal’s Yard Remedies, Jurlique, Melvita and Comvita are among the international brands with concept stores in Hong Kong.
Posted: October 16, 2014
The beauty retailing landscape is constantly in flux, Kline recently posted in a blog. The consumer’s path to purchase is not always clear, as offline and online shopping are more intertwined than ever before.
Alternate shopping channels and sub-channels, once touted by many in the beauty industry as being “negligible” or “insignificant,” have emerged as “essential” for the growth of brands. Digital shopping has moved from the peripheral to the epicenter of a brand’s distribution strategy. The formula for a winning marketing approach can be created based on the awareness of the beauty retailing mix and what is appropriate for a particular product or category.
Follow your customers wherever they are, Kline states. Technology is a driving force that is changing the face of beauty retailing, and retailers are no longer bound by a particular channel. Instead, most view themselves omni-channel in order to reach out to the largest possible audience made up of smaller sub-demographics.
Specialty stores are an important critical space to purchase beauty products for many consumers. Many of these venues are havens for new product launches. This channel now demonstrates the second highest growth at 5.4% in 2013, boosted by growth coming from apparel specialty stores, which have posted an 18% CAGR since 2007.
TV shopping has established itself as a credible outlet, with infomercials growing at a CAGR of +11% since 2007 and home shopping networks growing by over 18%, increasing its market share from 5% to almost 9% since 2007. Mobile and online shopping have become even more important. The growth of purchasing via smartphones, personal computers and tablets helps grow the e-commerce area, and Internet sales have posted a 26% CAGR since 2007.