Iron Bamboo- Thyrsostachys Oliveri- Kanak Kainch

Thyrsostachys Oliveri, another of the few "Iron Bamboos", is native to the Thailand, South China and N.E India (Tripura area). It is one of the most important bamboo species, because of its near solid structure and fiber quality. Locally called the Kanak Kaich, its a fairly straight growing mid sized bamboo, with a small spread. Farmers in Katlamara in West Tripura cultivate this bamboo at close spacing of about 2.5 m x 2.5 m.

I found this IRON BAMBOO species interesting, due to its vigorous growth at a Nursery close to Dehradun. I have, thus planted a few in my little bambusarium, due to its possible applications in the handicraft sector.

Thyrsostachys oliveri is a short rhizomed, perennial, evergreen, clumpin! g/sympodial tropical bamboo, with persistent culm-sheath, which is an identifying feature. The almost straight/erect culms are about 15 – 25 m long; 50 – 70mm in dia and about 40 – 60cm internode.

As an iron bamboo, its valued as an excellent material for house-beams and miscellaneous applications in construction. The culms are used for reinforcing concrete blocks. Local craftsmen use this bamboo for handicrafts- mat-making, basketry, broom handles etc. Its fiber has a dark brown lustre, which makes it a material of choice for handicrafts. In Thailand, the young shoots are harvested for the production of steamed bamboo shoots.

Habitat : This species originates on the low hills forest, open areas at an altitudinal ranges of 500–700 m.

Distribution : Thailand, Myanmar, China – introduc! ed and cultivated in tropical / subtropical Asia (Gamble, 1896; Wu, 2006).

Silvi-cultural management techniques Propagated through air-layering, culm cutting or offset planting.

Local Names :

Thailand;Phai ruak dam

Burma-Thanawa. Thyrsostachys Oliveri is a Native of Burma. (Nayagarh & Ganjam Districts)

Manipur- Keirakwa

Tripura- Kanak Kaich, Busai, Nusai, Nala Bauns

 

A farmer’s blog on Bamboo Agro-Forestry

Bamboo Trails- Dendrocalamus Stocksii

I learnt about this near solid, iron-bamboo (Dendrocalamus Stocksii) from an article published by Indian Wood Science. The interesting feature was its loose-clumping growth habit, along with a near absence of inter-nodal cavity, thereby making it a suitable candidate for consideration of use to replace wood in certain applications in the handicraft industry. Also alluded to, as an iron-bamboo due to its iron like strength, this species is practically non-existent in N. India. Scientists at FRI and various agricultural institutes need to study the viability of introducing Dendrocalamus Stocksii in the TARAI, which is pretty humid and moist, much like the costal area, where this bamboo is naturally found.

Classification

Dendrocalamus stocksii (Munro), synonym Oxytenanthera stocksii / Pseudoxytenanthera stocksiiaabsence (Munro), synonym Oxytenanthera stocksii / Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii

As per the alluded article, Dendrocalamus stocksii is naturally distributed in Central Western Ghats. Locally called – Chivari’, Mes, Konda, Oor-shema, Marihal, Manga etc. D. stocksii has medium sized, stout solid and strong culms. Though the natural distribution of this species is in humid tropics, this species has a wide adaptability and comes up well in tropical humid, sub humid and semi-arid conditions.

MORPHOLOGY

Culms are said to be about 8 to 9m, basal dia 25-58mm and internode of 15-30cm, light green in colour, loosely spaced and without thorns. They are solid at the ! base upto about half the culm height.

Anatomical and Mechanical Properties of Dendrocalamus stocksii

Specific gravity- 0.691

Fibre Diameter (μm)- 16.6

Fibre Lumen Diameter (μm)- 5.7

Fibre length (mm)-3.4

Fibre Wall Thickness (μm)- 10.9

Modulus of Rupture (MOR) (kg/cm2)- 620

Maximum crushing stress (kg/cm2)- 386

Vascular bundles per cm2- 281

(Source: Rao et al., 2004)

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Species Specific gravity MOR (kg/cm2) Max. crushing stress (kg/cm2) Dendrocalamus stocksii 0.691 620 386 Bambusa nutans 0.603 529 456 Bambusa bambos 0.584 836 572 Dendrocalamus strictus 0.631 734 359 Tectona grandis 0.604 959 532

comparison

kN/cm²   spruce   bamboo   steel St37 elastic modulus   1100   2000   21000 compressive compressive   4.3   6.2-9.3   14 tension strength   8.9! g>   14.8-38.4   16 bending strength   6.8   7.6-27.6  ! ont> 14 shearing strength   0.7   2.0   9.2  

The compressive strength of bamboo is roughly situated between 40 and 80 N/mm2 which is twice to four times the value of most timber species. Bamboo with low moisture content has a higher compressive strength than one with higher moisture.

The shear strength of bamboo is often twice the value of popular timber species.

The bending strength of most bamboo species varies between 50 and 150 N/mm2 and is on average twice as strong as most conventional st! ructural timbers

Bamboo- For Handicrafts and Fiber

Bamboo, genetically, a grass, is proving to be a suitable green substitute to hardwood timber. Its green, because it is one of the fastest growing plants, and under a suitable regimen of agro-forestry, can substantially reduce the burden on our forests.

Needless to mention, that Indian Wooden Handicraft Industry is having to look at alternative resources for raw material, in light of Indian Rosewood (Shisham) having been classified under schedule 2 of the  CITES lists.

Bamboo seems to fit the bill perfectly. 

As a farmer, as well a stake-holder in handicraft business, we have hence commenced planting bamboo for our needs. In quest of elite planting material, I travelled to all corners of the country, as well as parts of Bhutan and Nepal. We collected some interesting genotypes- We also received some g! ood planting material from Agro-Forestry Dept.of GBPUAT. As a result of above efforts, we have now established trial plots of 6 species of bamboo on our farm, which we shall study for suitability for handicraft applications, as well as its agronomy ( suitability as a cash crop).

Bamboo has a long and interesting history dating back more than 5,000 years. The woody stem has various applications- it is widely used in construction industry, handicrafts, paper, furniture and for fiber processing, besides some other applications. 

Bamboo textiles are textiles derived from bamboo fibers, with or without hemp/cotton/spandex blends. BAMBOO Fiber is obtained from the culms- it is lingo cellulosic, made from bamboo timber which has matured for at least 3-4 years (depending on species). The major chemical constituents of ! bamboo are cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin, besides minor! occurrence of waxes, resins, tannins, proteins and ashes. Bamboo fibers comprise of 60–70 % holo-cellulose, pentose’s (20–25 %), hemicelluloses and lignin. The α-cellulose of bamboo is comparable with that of woods. Cellulose contents in this range make bamboo a suitable raw material for the pulp and paper industry. Cellulose is made up of linear chains of β-1-4-linked glucose anhydride units.

Mature Culms are crushed and submersed in a strong solution of sodium hydroxide to dissolve the cellulose. Carbon disulfide is added to regenerate fibers, which are then drawn off, washed and bleached and dried. The resultant fluff is spun into yarn.

The higher tensile strength and longer staple results in a tough yet soft yarn – This is what gives bamboo fabrics excellent durability. The hollowness of the bamboo fiber makes it highly absorbent. Thus, it takes longer to dry on a clothesline. ! The hollowness of the bamboo fiber also enables it to hold color (dyes and pigments)-thus it is much more colorfast.

Main methods of producing bamboo fibers-

The culm is crushed and soaked in a solution of 18 % NaOH at 20–25 °C for 1– 3 h to form alkali cellulose, which is then pressed to remove excess NaOH solution. The mass is further crushed, left to dry for 24 h and CS2 added. This causes the bamboo alkali cellulose to sulfurise and jell out. The remaining CS2 is removed by evaporation due to decompression, resulting in sodium xanthogenate.  A diluted solution of NaOH is added to the cellulose sodium xanthogenate, to dissolve it into a viscose solution consisting of about 5 % NaOH and 7–15 % bamboo fiber cellulose.  The viscose solution is forced through spinneret nozzles into a larger container of diluted sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution which, hardens the viscose and reconve! rts it to cellulose bamboo fiber which are spun into yarns (to! be woven! or knitted).

Lyocell process uses N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMNO) to dissolve the bamboo cellulose into viscose solution. NMNO- a weak alkaline-  acts as surfactant, as well as to break down the cellulose structure. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is added as a stabilizer and the solution is forced through spinnerets into a hardening bath (usually a solution of H2O2 and a alcohol like methanol or ethanol), which causes the thin streams of viscose solution to harden into bamboo cellulose fibers. The regenerated bamboo fibers are spun into yarns.

BAMBOO CHARCOAL FIBER  The joints of bamboo are cut out and then split up into pieces of slivers of an inch in width. The shredded bamboo is pickled in a solution of clear lime-water, nitrate of soda and oxalic acid. The pickled bamboo is removed after 12–24 h in order to be boiled in a solution of soda ash. The material is crushed and then combed, carded, or h! eckled. It is then spun into cordage, yarn or other forms of manufacturing.
LITRAX (NATURAL) BAMBOO FIBER Mechanical extraction of natural bamboo fiber, a Bamboo culms. b Mechanical splitting of bamboo culms. c Rasping of woody parts. d Enzyme bath. e Gray and bleached natural bamboo fibers. f Woven bamboo fabric. In order to turn bamboo into a fiber, first the culm must be crushed mechanically. The crushed bamboo strands are then treated with designed enzymes to separate the fibrous material from the glue-like lignin within the plant. This includes a series of precisely timed alternate steam- washing and enzyme treatment cycles, which also act on the vertical and horizontally aligned lignin of the resulting fiber bundles. The final step is to bleach the fibers with hydrogen peroxide. The resulting natural staple length varies between 70 and 150 mm, but can be cut to shorter lengths for processing, i.e. 50 or 38 mm staple. Litrax provides the LITRAX-1 (L1) natural! bamboo fibers with a special DNA coding to protect its vertic! al supply! chain and customers. The DNA coding will guarantee that customers are buying the original, authentic bamboo fiber from Litrax. The fiber is strong and durable.

TECHNICAL DATA OF LITRAX L1 BAMBOO FIBER L1 fiber characteristics Dimensions Fineness 5.7D Fiber dimensions 38 mm from (natural 70–150 mm staple)

END USES OF BAMBOO FIBER Bamboo fabrics are made from pure bamboo fiber yarns which have excellent wet permeability, moisture vapor transmission property, soft hand, better drape, easy dying, splendid colors.

Gandalf Hobbit Churchwarden Tobacco Smoking Pipe

We have listed Gandalf Hobbit Churchwarden Pipe on ebay at $ 12 per piece, with International Shipping Options, $ 12 for the first, with $ 8 for every additional.

It’s a handcrafted bowl pipe, 10 inches long, handcrafted in hardwood.

wooden 10 inch bowl pipe

Smoking pipes of various types have been in u! se since time immemorial. There is a description by Herodotus of Scythians inhaling the fumes of burning leaves in 500 B.C.
Native Americans are known to have smoked tobacco in ceremonial pipes. The tobacco plant is said to be native to South America, which spread into North America long before Europeans arrived. Tobacco was introduced to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century and spread around the world rapidly.

On ebay USA (ebay.com)

On ebay Canada (ebay.ca)

Smoking Pipes Ebay-Cross Border Shipments

My question to the forum concerns cross border shipments of Tobacco Smoking Pipes.

I wonder, if somebody can offer help/guidance with regards to labeling and packing of Tobacco Smoking Pipes, to facilitate a smooth pass through US Customs.

I had written to US Customs, seeking a clarification- I have received a perfunctory response, which, at best, is a mere formality, without any specific solution.

As per my information

The relevant statute, 21 U.S.C. Section 863 provides

(a) In general It is unlawful for any person—
(1) to sell or offer for sale drug paraphernalia;
(2) to use the mails or any other facility of interstate commerce to transport drug! paraphernalia; or
(3) to import or export drug paraphernalia.

Whereas, 21 U.S.C. Section 863(d) and 21 U.S.C. Section 863(e) try to define the term “drug paraphernalia”

THERE ARE EXEMPTIONS TO THE RULE VIDE 21 U.S.C. Section 863(f):

(1) any person authorized by local, State, or Federal law to manufacture, possess, or distribute such items; or

(2) any item that, in the normal lawful course of business, is imported, exported, transported, or sold through the mail or by any other means, and traditionally intended for use with tobacco products, including any pipe, paper, or accessory. (Emphasis added).

Since these items are being sold on amazon and ebay, does the above exemption apply – and if our labels indicate its intended/likely use to be “Smoking Tobacco” are we in the ambit of the law to dispatch these via courier to fulfill our ebay/amazon orders ?

.

Tobacco Smoking Pipes-Cross Border Trading

As an entrepreneur, associated with handicraft industry (wood, horn, metal and stone), one of our product lines that we wish to develop FOR OUR EBAY/AMAZON ONLINE MARKET PLACES is SMOKING PIPES.

I see whole lot of them being offered, sold/traded on ebay and amazon- yet I also hear about CROSS BORDER SHIPMENTS being impounded by US Customs.

I wonder, if somebody can offer help/guidance with regards to labeling and packing of Tobacco Smoking Pipes, to facilitate a smooth pass through US Customs.

I had written to US Customs, seeking a clarification- I have received a perfunctory response, which, at best, is a mere formality.

The relevant statute, 21 U.S.C. Section 863 provides

(a) In general It is unlawful for any pers! on—
(1) to sell or offer for sale drug paraphernalia;
(2) to use the mails or any other facility of interstate commerce to transport drug paraphernalia; or
(3) to import or export drug paraphernalia.

Whereas, 21 U.S.C. Section 863(d) and 21 U.S.C. Section 863(e) try to define the term “drug paraphernalia”

THERE ARE EXEMPTIONS TO THE RULE VIDE 21 U.S.C. Section 863(f):

(1) any person authorized by local, State, or Federal law to manufacture, possess, or distribute such items; or

(2) any item that, in the normal lawful course of business, is imported, exported, transported, or sold through the mail! > or by any other means, and traditionally intended for us! e with tobacco products, including any pipe, paper, or accessory. (Emphasis added).

Since these items are being sold on amazon and ebay, does the above exemption apply – and if our labels indicate its intended/likely use to be “Smoking Tobacco” are we in the ambit of the law to dispatch these via courier to fulfill our ebay/amazon orders ?

.