Bamboo Trails- Dendrocalamus Stocksii

I learnt about this near solid, iron-bamboo (Dendrocalamus Stocksii) from an article published by Indian Wood Science. The interesting feature was its loose-clumping growth habit, along with a near absence of inter-nodal cavity, thereby making it a suitable candidate for consideration of use to replace wood in certain applications in the handicraft industry. Also alluded to, as an iron-bamboo due to its iron like strength, this species is practically non-existent in N. India. Scientists at FRI and various agricultural institutes need to study the viability of introducing Dendrocalamus Stocksii in the TARAI, which is pretty humid and moist, much like the costal area, where this bamboo is naturally found.

Classification

Dendrocalamus stocksii (Munro), synonym Oxytenanthera stocksii / Pseudoxytenanthera stocksiiaabsence (Munro), synonym Oxytenanthera stocksii / Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii

As per the alluded article, Dendrocalamus stocksii is naturally distributed in Central Western Ghats. Locally called – Chivari’, Mes, Konda, Oor-shema, Marihal, Manga etc. D. stocksii has medium sized, stout solid and strong culms. Though the natural distribution of this species is in humid tropics, this species has a wide adaptability and comes up well in tropical humid, sub humid and semi-arid conditions.

MORPHOLOGY

Culms are said to be about 8 to 9m, basal dia 25-58mm and internode of 15-30cm, light green in colour, loosely spaced and without thorns. They are solid at the ! base upto about half the culm height.

Anatomical and Mechanical Properties of Dendrocalamus stocksii

Specific gravity- 0.691

Fibre Diameter (μm)- 16.6

Fibre Lumen Diameter (μm)- 5.7

Fibre length (mm)-3.4

Fibre Wall Thickness (μm)- 10.9

Modulus of Rupture (MOR) (kg/cm2)- 620

Maximum crushing stress (kg/cm2)- 386

Vascular bundles per cm2- 281

(Source: Rao et al., 2004)

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Species Specific gravity MOR (kg/cm2) Max. crushing stress (kg/cm2) Dendrocalamus stocksii 0.691 620 386 Bambusa nutans 0.603 529 456 Bambusa bambos 0.584 836 572 Dendrocalamus strictus 0.631 734 359 Tectona grandis 0.604 959 532

comparison

kN/cm²   spruce   bamboo   steel St37 elastic modulus   1100   2000   21000 compressive compressive   4.3   6.2-9.3   14 tension strength   8.9! g>   14.8-38.4   16 bending strength   6.8   7.6-27.6  ! ont> 14 shearing strength   0.7   2.0   9.2  

The compressive strength of bamboo is roughly situated between 40 and 80 N/mm2 which is twice to four times the value of most timber species. Bamboo with low moisture content has a higher compressive strength than one with higher moisture.

The shear strength of bamboo is often twice the value of popular timber species.

The bending strength of most bamboo species varies between 50 and 150 N/mm2 and is on average twice as strong as most conventional st! ructural timbers

Bamboo- For Handicrafts and Fiber

Bamboo, genetically, a grass, is proving to be a suitable green substitute to hardwood timber. Its green, because it is one of the fastest growing plants, and under a suitable regimen of agro-forestry, can substantially reduce the burden on our forests.

Needless to mention, that Indian Wooden Handicraft Industry is having to look at alternative resources for raw material, in light of Indian Rosewood (Shisham) having been classified under schedule 2 of the  CITES lists.

Bamboo seems to fit the bill perfectly. 

As a farmer, as well a stake-holder in handicraft business, we have hence commenced planting bamboo for our needs. In quest of elite planting material, I travelled to all corners of the country, as well as parts of Bhutan and Nepal. We collected some interesting genotypes- We also received some g! ood planting material from Agro-Forestry Dept.of GBPUAT. As a result of above efforts, we have now established trial plots of 6 species of bamboo on our farm, which we shall study for suitability for handicraft applications, as well as its agronomy ( suitability as a cash crop).

Bamboo has a long and interesting history dating back more than 5,000 years. The woody stem has various applications- it is widely used in construction industry, handicrafts, paper, furniture and for fiber processing, besides some other applications. 

Bamboo textiles are textiles derived from bamboo fibers, with or without hemp/cotton/spandex blends. BAMBOO Fiber is obtained from the culms- it is lingo cellulosic, made from bamboo timber which has matured for at least 3-4 years (depending on species). The major chemical constituents of ! bamboo are cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin, besides minor! occurrence of waxes, resins, tannins, proteins and ashes. Bamboo fibers comprise of 60–70 % holo-cellulose, pentose’s (20–25 %), hemicelluloses and lignin. The α-cellulose of bamboo is comparable with that of woods. Cellulose contents in this range make bamboo a suitable raw material for the pulp and paper industry. Cellulose is made up of linear chains of β-1-4-linked glucose anhydride units.

Mature Culms are crushed and submersed in a strong solution of sodium hydroxide to dissolve the cellulose. Carbon disulfide is added to regenerate fibers, which are then drawn off, washed and bleached and dried. The resultant fluff is spun into yarn.

The higher tensile strength and longer staple results in a tough yet soft yarn – This is what gives bamboo fabrics excellent durability. The hollowness of the bamboo fiber makes it highly absorbent. Thus, it takes longer to dry on a clothesline. ! The hollowness of the bamboo fiber also enables it to hold color (dyes and pigments)-thus it is much more colorfast.

Main methods of producing bamboo fibers-

The culm is crushed and soaked in a solution of 18 % NaOH at 20–25 °C for 1– 3 h to form alkali cellulose, which is then pressed to remove excess NaOH solution. The mass is further crushed, left to dry for 24 h and CS2 added. This causes the bamboo alkali cellulose to sulfurise and jell out. The remaining CS2 is removed by evaporation due to decompression, resulting in sodium xanthogenate.  A diluted solution of NaOH is added to the cellulose sodium xanthogenate, to dissolve it into a viscose solution consisting of about 5 % NaOH and 7–15 % bamboo fiber cellulose.  The viscose solution is forced through spinneret nozzles into a larger container of diluted sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution which, hardens the viscose and reconve! rts it to cellulose bamboo fiber which are spun into yarns (to! be woven! or knitted).

Lyocell process uses N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMNO) to dissolve the bamboo cellulose into viscose solution. NMNO- a weak alkaline-  acts as surfactant, as well as to break down the cellulose structure. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is added as a stabilizer and the solution is forced through spinnerets into a hardening bath (usually a solution of H2O2 and a alcohol like methanol or ethanol), which causes the thin streams of viscose solution to harden into bamboo cellulose fibers. The regenerated bamboo fibers are spun into yarns.

BAMBOO CHARCOAL FIBER  The joints of bamboo are cut out and then split up into pieces of slivers of an inch in width. The shredded bamboo is pickled in a solution of clear lime-water, nitrate of soda and oxalic acid. The pickled bamboo is removed after 12–24 h in order to be boiled in a solution of soda ash. The material is crushed and then combed, carded, or h! eckled. It is then spun into cordage, yarn or other forms of manufacturing.
LITRAX (NATURAL) BAMBOO FIBER Mechanical extraction of natural bamboo fiber, a Bamboo culms. b Mechanical splitting of bamboo culms. c Rasping of woody parts. d Enzyme bath. e Gray and bleached natural bamboo fibers. f Woven bamboo fabric. In order to turn bamboo into a fiber, first the culm must be crushed mechanically. The crushed bamboo strands are then treated with designed enzymes to separate the fibrous material from the glue-like lignin within the plant. This includes a series of precisely timed alternate steam- washing and enzyme treatment cycles, which also act on the vertical and horizontally aligned lignin of the resulting fiber bundles. The final step is to bleach the fibers with hydrogen peroxide. The resulting natural staple length varies between 70 and 150 mm, but can be cut to shorter lengths for processing, i.e. 50 or 38 mm staple. Litrax provides the LITRAX-1 (L1) natural! bamboo fibers with a special DNA coding to protect its vertic! al supply! chain and customers. The DNA coding will guarantee that customers are buying the original, authentic bamboo fiber from Litrax. The fiber is strong and durable.

TECHNICAL DATA OF LITRAX L1 BAMBOO FIBER L1 fiber characteristics Dimensions Fineness 5.7D Fiber dimensions 38 mm from (natural 70–150 mm staple)

END USES OF BAMBOO FIBER Bamboo fabrics are made from pure bamboo fiber yarns which have excellent wet permeability, moisture vapor transmission property, soft hand, better drape, easy dying, splendid colors.

Gandalf Hobbit Churchwarden Tobacco Smoking Pipe

We have listed Gandalf Hobbit Churchwarden Pipe on ebay at $ 12 per piece, with International Shipping Options, $ 12 for the first, with $ 8 for every additional.

It’s a handcrafted bowl pipe, 10 inches long, handcrafted in hardwood.

wooden 10 inch bowl pipe

Smoking pipes of various types have been in u! se since time immemorial. There is a description by Herodotus of Scythians inhaling the fumes of burning leaves in 500 B.C.
Native Americans are known to have smoked tobacco in ceremonial pipes. The tobacco plant is said to be native to South America, which spread into North America long before Europeans arrived. Tobacco was introduced to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century and spread around the world rapidly.

On ebay USA (ebay.com)

On ebay Canada (ebay.ca)

Smoking Pipes Ebay-Cross Border Shipments

My question to the forum concerns cross border shipments of Tobacco Smoking Pipes.

I wonder, if somebody can offer help/guidance with regards to labeling and packing of Tobacco Smoking Pipes, to facilitate a smooth pass through US Customs.

I had written to US Customs, seeking a clarification- I have received a perfunctory response, which, at best, is a mere formality, without any specific solution.

As per my information

The relevant statute, 21 U.S.C. Section 863 provides

(a) In general It is unlawful for any person—
(1) to sell or offer for sale drug paraphernalia;
(2) to use the mails or any other facility of interstate commerce to transport drug! paraphernalia; or
(3) to import or export drug paraphernalia.

Whereas, 21 U.S.C. Section 863(d) and 21 U.S.C. Section 863(e) try to define the term “drug paraphernalia”

THERE ARE EXEMPTIONS TO THE RULE VIDE 21 U.S.C. Section 863(f):

(1) any person authorized by local, State, or Federal law to manufacture, possess, or distribute such items; or

(2) any item that, in the normal lawful course of business, is imported, exported, transported, or sold through the mail or by any other means, and traditionally intended for use with tobacco products, including any pipe, paper, or accessory. (Emphasis added).

Since these items are being sold on amazon and ebay, does the above exemption apply – and if our labels indicate its intended/likely use to be “Smoking Tobacco” are we in the ambit of the law to dispatch these via courier to fulfill our ebay/amazon orders ?

.

Tobacco Smoking Pipes-Cross Border Trading

As an entrepreneur, associated with handicraft industry (wood, horn, metal and stone), one of our product lines that we wish to develop FOR OUR EBAY/AMAZON ONLINE MARKET PLACES is SMOKING PIPES.

I see whole lot of them being offered, sold/traded on ebay and amazon- yet I also hear about CROSS BORDER SHIPMENTS being impounded by US Customs.

I wonder, if somebody can offer help/guidance with regards to labeling and packing of Tobacco Smoking Pipes, to facilitate a smooth pass through US Customs.

I had written to US Customs, seeking a clarification- I have received a perfunctory response, which, at best, is a mere formality.

The relevant statute, 21 U.S.C. Section 863 provides

(a) In general It is unlawful for any pers! on—
(1) to sell or offer for sale drug paraphernalia;
(2) to use the mails or any other facility of interstate commerce to transport drug paraphernalia; or
(3) to import or export drug paraphernalia.

Whereas, 21 U.S.C. Section 863(d) and 21 U.S.C. Section 863(e) try to define the term “drug paraphernalia”

THERE ARE EXEMPTIONS TO THE RULE VIDE 21 U.S.C. Section 863(f):

(1) any person authorized by local, State, or Federal law to manufacture, possess, or distribute such items; or

(2) any item that, in the normal lawful course of business, is imported, exported, transported, or sold through the mail! > or by any other means, and traditionally intended for us! e with tobacco products, including any pipe, paper, or accessory. (Emphasis added).

Since these items are being sold on amazon and ebay, does the above exemption apply – and if our labels indicate its intended/likely use to be “Smoking Tobacco” are we in the ambit of the law to dispatch these via courier to fulfill our ebay/amazon orders ?

.

Exporting Wooden Handcrafted Smoking Pipes to USA

Handcrafted Smoking Pipes, Hookahs, Bongs and such related goods are a product of the handicrafts industry clustered in Uttar Pradesh and adjoining areas. It caters to niche markets in Americas, Middle East, Europe etc.

However, due to its potential use as an accessory or an equipment for consumption of drugs, United States Customs scrutinizes, reviews and examines shipments of these products in a very comprehensive way.

Due to my affiliation with the handicraft industry, I took up the initiative of browsing the relevant laws, which I am reproducing below, with comments.

The HS classification is as follows.  

96140000 (SMOKING PIPES, INCLUDING PIPE BOWLS, CIGAR OR CIGARETTE HOLDERS AND PARTS THEREOF),

44201000 (Wooden Handicrafts)

68029900 (Hand! icrafts of Stone)

Ref-

The relevant statute, 21 U.S.C. Section 863 provides,
(a) In general It is unlawful for any person—
(1) to sell or offer for sale drug paraphernalia;
(2) to use the mails or any other facility of interstate commerce to transport drug paraphernalia; or
(3) to import or export drug paraphernalia.

Pursuant to 21 U.S.C. Section 863(d), the term “drug paraphernalia” is defined as:

Any equipment, product, or material of any kind which is primarily intended or designed for use in manufacturing, compounding, converting, concealing, producing, processing, p! reparing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introdu! cing into the human body a controlled substance, possession of which is unlawful under this subchapter. It includes items primarily intended or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing marijuana, cocaine, hashish, hashish oil, PCP, methamphetamine, or amphetamines into the human body, such as—
(1) metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, or ceramic pipes with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads, or punctured metal bowls;
(2) water pipes;
(3) carburetion tubes and devices;
(4) smoking and carburetion masks;
(5) roach clips: meaning objects used to hold burning material, such as a marihuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to be held in the hand;
(6) miniature spoons with level capacities of one-tenth cubic centimeter or less;
(7) chamber pipes;
(8) carburetor pipes;
(9) electric pipes;
(10) air-driven pipes;
(11) chillums;
(12) bongs;
(13) ice pipes or chillers;
(14) wired cigarette papers; or
(15) cocaine freebase kits. (Emphasis added).

Further, to determine whether an item is considered drug paraphernalia, 21 U.S.C. Section 863(e) provides that:

[I]n addition to all other logically relevant factors, the following may be considered:
(1) instructions, oral or written, provided with the item concerning its use;
(2) descriptive materials accompanying the item which explain or depict its use;
(3) national and local advertising concerning its use;
(4) the manner in which the item is displayed for sale;
(5) whether the owner, or anyone in control of the item, is a legitimate supplier of like or related ! items to the community, such as a licensed distributor or deal! er of tob! acco products;
(6) direct or circumstantial evidence of the ratio of sales of the item(s) to the total sales of the business enterprise;
(7) the existence and scope of legitimate uses of the item in the community; and
(8) expert testimony concerning its use.

Lastly, 21 U.S.C. Section 863(f) lists exemptions:

(1) any person authorized by local, State, or Federal law to manufacture, possess, or distribute such items; or

(2) any item that, in the normal lawful course of business, is imported, exported, transported, or sold through the mail or by any other means, and traditionally intended for use with tobacco products, including any pipe, paper, or accessory. (Emphasis added).

The U.S. Supreme Court examined the meaning of “drug paraphernalia” pursuant to 21 U.S.C. Section 863 in the matter of Posters ‘N’ Things v. United States, 511 U.S. 513 (1994), and considered the phrases (1) “primarily intended for use” and (2) “designed for use” in such case.
The Court concluded that “primarily intended for use” is to be understood objectively and refers generally to an item’s likely use. Posters ‘N’ Things, 511 U.S. 513, 521 (1994). Moreover, the Court noted that this “is a relatively particularized definition, reaching beyond the category of items that are likely to be used with drugs by virtue of their objective features.” Id. at 521 n.11.
The court stated that “items ‘primarily inten! ded’ for use with drugs constitute drug par! aphernali! a, indicating that it is the likely use of customers generally, not any particular customer, that can render a multiple-use item drug paraphernalia.” Id. at 521 n.11. Therefore, items having possible multiple uses may constitute drug paraphernalia for purposes of 21 U.S.C. Section 863 if the likely use by customers of the seller of the items is for use with illegal drugs.

Customs will make the determination on a case-by-case basis about whether your product falls within the context of drug paraphernalia.  Accordingly, one should take into account the relevant factors that CBP considers when publishing its rulings on such products.  Further, one should speak with an attorney who focuses on Customs law to ensure that the best arguments are presented to CBP for clearance of their smoke shop products into the U! nited States.

Further References

Tobacco Control Act.

In accordance with 26 U.S.C. § 5702(c), "tobacco products" means cigars, cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (snuff or chewing tobacco), pipe tobacco, and roll-your-own tobacco. For pipe/loose tobacco products, contact the Ports of Entry.

§41.75 Exemptions.
The provisions of this subpart requiring that tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes be put up in packages and that proper notice be placed on such packages shall not apply to imported tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes authorized to be released from customs custody, without payment of internal revenue tax, pursuant to §41.50, and shall not apply to tobacco products imported in passengers’ baggage, or by mail where the value does not exceed $250, where such products are solely for the personal consumption of the importer or for disposition as his bona fide gift.

(72 Stat. 1422; 26 U.S.C. 5723)
[T.D. 6871, 31 FR 41, Jan. 4, 1966. Redesignated at 40 FR 16835, Apr. 15, 1975, as amended by T.D. ATF-232, 51 FR 28085, Aug. 5, 1986; T.D. ATF-243, 51 FR 43194, Dec. 1, 1986. Redesignated and amended by T.D. TTB-16, 69 FR 52424, 52425, Aug. 26, 2004]